Orakzai Agency is spread over an area of 1,538 square kilometers. It is bounded by Kurram Agency in the west and Khyber in the north, Kohat district in the south and Peshawar in the east. Orakzai Agency is a mountainous tract dissected by numerous dry water courses especially in the south western part of the agency. It was made an agency in 1973 by the then Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. The capital of Orakzai Agency is Kalaia Town. The Orakzai are the main tribe with four other major non Orakzai tribes including the Ali Khel, the Mullah Khel, the Mishti and the Shaikhan. However, these tribes have been assimilated into the Orakzai culture and are considered to be Orakzais. Total population of the area is estimated to be 530,000.
TTP is the main militant group active in Orakzai Agency, along with some reported activity by the Shia Hydri Taliban. The presence of one Shia Hydri Taliban is also expected there.